(a) Questionnaire campaign
The Questionnaire and Promotional campaign to promote the CFLs use in residential area was developed on four levels, by the UTC-N - Lighting Engineering Center - with the support of three partners of the programme: ELECTRICA Distribution Local branch, on a volunteer cooperation, and EnergoBit and PRAGMATIC Comprest electric dealers, on the sub-contractual basis. The whole average number of the CFLs is 2.86 units per people (family, house), received from 8 questionnaire campaigns (7 EnERLIn, 1 CREFEN), 892 people/ houses, 2551 used CFLs, November 2005 – May 2008. The CFLs distribution power in Western Romania denotes that favorite powers for CFLs are 13 W – 27% - and 20 W – 22%.
The luminaires equipped with CFLs with increased energy efficiency currently have a large development. In the frame of the EIE-EnERLIn program, a selection of the most representative luminaires dedicated to CFL use has been realized. According to the questionnaire answers, the reasons that CFLs are not used in a larger manner are the followings:- The CFLs do not fit with the lighting fixtures in the house: we noticed that many of the people that responded at this question are not familiar with the fact that CFLs have evolved in new compact shapes and that there are versions similar in design with classic incandescent lamps; - They do not know the quality of CFLs: a promotion campaign to promote these lamps would be very useful to compensate this shortcoming; -They keep the GSLs in places where the electrical energy consumption is very low (closet, storage room): in places where the consumption is quite rare, people still use GSLs of low powers. Because the period when these lamps are used is very short (below 30 minutes/day), the savings will be lower that those obtained in a regular chamber where the consumption is much higher. Next to this the investment will be recovered in a longer period of time; - The name of the manufacturers: general speaking, everyone is familiar with the world manufacturers, but still there are “no name” products that are sold on the market. CFL needs a certification to be reliable; - People do not know that CFL last many years, around 8000 hours: GSL for example last in time only 1000 hours.
(b) Editorial results
Under the frame of the IEE – ENERLIN program 2006 – 2008 we realised many papers – around 29, presented in national and most important international Conferences, printed in proceedings and journals. Four issue of the journal Ingineria Iluminatului were printed - see http://users.utcluj.ro/~lec. A handbook Energy efficiency in residential lighting was edited in a national recognized printed house.
(c) e-Learning modules
An innovative mass media tool were used to improve the technology transfer, in order to provide scientific information to different target users - the modular distant learning methodology set up by ENEA. The distant learning modular approach implies the production of “learning objects” at deeper and deeper levels of technical details in order to suite the needs of different classes of user such as: citizens, student, teachers, vendors, producers, engineers working on building construction; architects; illumination engineers and consultants; policy makers; commercial engineers, etc. These training module could be integrated to normal initial curricula of the above mentioned disciplines or (and this is a main issue) could be proposed as part of life-long learning process.
A web site http://www.enerlin.enea.it was created under the frame of the EnERLIn program, for the free use of the teaching lectures of the Professors George ZISSIS (8 April 2008) and Florin POP (25 September 2008).
Energy efficiency in residential buildings (English and Romanian), Buildings lighting equipment (Romanian). There are also presented some of the methods to obtain energy efficient interior lighting: installation of luminaires with fluorescent lamps for all relevant positions (ceiling or wall mounted) where a use of more than two hours daily is assumed - kitchen or living room, bathrooms, halls or bedrooms; use of CFL in dedicated luminaires instead of mounting them in GLS dedicated luminaires; this would encourage the use of CFL throughout the duration of existence of the building; use of CFL for portable luminaires with a use of more than two hours per day; use of luminaires with the energy label of type A - ENERGY STAR; use of presence sensors to open and close the light as needed; use of light colors for the interior walls, with the purpose of reducing the electric lighting. Many existing lighting installations are far from energy/cost effective. Consequently, opportunities exist to convert them by using more efficient equipment to provide the same, or sometimes better, lighting for a lower energy consumption and cost. The objective is clearly to provide lighting to the quantity and quality standards required, with the minimum usage of electrical energy. To meet this basic requirement it is necessary to evaluate the equipment, techniques and services available for both existing and proposed installation. Even nowadays, the new and modernized lighting installations designed by devoted specialists meet requirements of new European standards, on the energy efficient and quality features.
The study realized by the Lighting Engineering of the Technical University in Cluj-Napoca presents the selection parameters of luminaires to be considered for the residential sector, the thresholds for the increase of use of energy efficient lighting in newly built households, the requirements concerning the integration of compact fluorescent lamps in the design of residential luminaires. In the case of the design of interior lighting installations we have to consider a series of principles and methods relevant to energetic efficiency. A simple software application allows any user with minimal knowledge of information technology to design the lighting installation in his/her own household based on energy efficiency criteria: http://atlas.ici.ro/crefen/proiectare_locuinta/htm A relatively recent study establishes that lighting for kitchen, living room, bathroom and exterior areas consumes approximately 50% of the total lighting consumption. 25% of the lamps installed in households consume 75% of the total lighting energy. Approximately 20% of energy is consumed by portable luminaires, powered through wall outlets. The analysis of CREFEN program reply sheets (November 2005) on a total of 290 households has shown that the installed power for lighting in the analyzed households has an average value of 853 W. With an average surface per home of 37.39 m2, (CREFEN - phase report 2005) we obtain an average specific installed power of 22.81 W/m2, with a preponderant incandescent lighting.
The research team proposes an ambitious project with multi-faced components and tasks - technical aspects (electric, thermal and optical), human behaviour (subjective preferences assessment, effect of light on humans), energy and economical impact on building environment, testing measurements and evaluations.
LED Luminaire for Plant Cultivation. General research grant The research consortium proposes an interesting project with two main components - technical aspects (energy efficiency, optimised flexible LEDs, spectral measurements) and plant "behaviour" (photo-synthetically answer, flowering in strawberry). Both of them with an important energy and economical impact on warmed greenhouses in Finland and not only.
The applied project focuses on the spectral sensitivity at low photopic luminance levels and the effective intensity of flashing signals, by investigating how the observers sense various light slashes that will be presented to them.
Evaluation of 9 proposed research projects with different topics – Energy efficiency in buildings, National programs for natural resources, European and national dimensions of the evaluation methods concerning the energy performance of the new and existent buildings, Romanian line up to the environment European legislation, Artificial intelligence techniques and new models to develop the charge studies for the electric energy efficient use in the energy market conditions and others.
3800 reviewed projects starting from November 1997. There were many contracts with the Ministry of Education and Research to verify projects on rehabilitation of schools around Romania, with the funds from Word Bank and/or other European bodies - 2001 – 2008; many than 500 schools, rehabilitation of electric installations and lighting – by promoting energy efficient equipment – tubular fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts and compact fluorescent lamps. There were also contracts with the National Agency of Household – (Agentia Nationala a Locuintei) ANL to verify projects for social households for young people, with the funding of Romanian Government funds – 2000 – 2009, many than 100 households (block of flats) in the neighboring area of Cluj-Napoca, by promoting energy efficient equipment – tubular fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts and compact fluorescent lamps. In all Verifying reports, I asked to designer to use energy efficient lamps in their projects.
Activity for dissemination of the program Leonardo Power Quality Initiative in Romania:includ: translation to Romanian of several application notes and other documents to be insert on the LPQI website; administration of the Romanian version of this site; publishing of the paper spreading information about LPQI and Leonardo technical papers in Romanian electric journals; organising support for disseminations events – seminaries, conferences, exhibitions.
Our contribution - edition of the Electric Installations teaching part nr. 7, CD and printed edition at UT PRES, ISBN (10) 973-662-238-X; ISBN (13) 978-973-662-238-0
Our contribution – (1) cooperation at the edition of the handbook Modern Principles of the Energy Management, and (2) edition of the handbook Energy efficiency in lighting.
A survey with 150 people (during the last five years) revealed the following values for the weighting factors of the main quality parameters (on the 1-10 scale): illuminance level of the working plane – 9; luminance contrast – visual task/background – 8; color rendering index – 7; energy efficiency – 9.
There are two natural barriers to implement an energy efficient lighting: economical and educational. The low level of people income (monthly average of about €125) does not permit the purchasing of energy efficient and color rendering lamps. The cost of a CFLs lamp - €4-8 - is about 10 times greater than GLS. The lighting knowledge is very poor even through the educated people, and there are now media dedicated programmes to improve it.
A questionnaire related with the energy efficiency in lighting was spread through the local area of the Lighting Engineering Center UTC-N, at about 30 lighting designers and dealers.
The answers refer to the offices and small manufacturers. The installed specific power is in the range of 13–22 W/m2, and 3-5 W/m2/100 lx for offices. There were not use the correlation with the daylight availability and users needs/presence due to the lack of interest from the owners. Some designers do not know the infrared control system. The weighted factors (in a 1-3 scale) for lighting features are the following: • importance of the control facilities – individual or building central - 1, zones of activity - 3; • mention the specific power – 3; • high technology ballasts and lamps – 2 to 3; • mention/use of the proper lamps (efficacy, color temperature, color rendering index) – 3 • energy labels – 1; • maintenance schedule – 1; • photometric measurements – 1 to 2; • lighting installation history book – 1. The national norms are considered unsatisfactory to acceptable.
Energy Efficient Lighting in Ten Steps was proposed, with the emphases of most efficient lamps, according with adequacy of their parameters (color, life) and Luminaires lumen output and lighting system design to assure an optimum use of the lamps emitted lumens
Our contribution - edition of the book Lighting techniques in Industrial, Office and Household Spaces, MEDIAMIRA Printing house, Cluj-Napoca 2001, ISBN 973-9358-93-4
Study related to the energy efficiency of the electric households – SEEC, National Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, grant Gr 6113/2000 – theme B24, coordinator dr. Dorin BEU
Lighting Engineering Centre - LEC - consulting and continuous formation, Tempus Phare CMS - Compact Measures Project - CME-03551-97, 1998 – 2000, Pop, Florin (coordinator), Ramon SanMartin (contractor),
The Lighting Engineering Centre LEC was founded in April 2000 at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, following the accomplishment of the CME-03551-97 Tempus-Phare project Lighting Engineering Centre – LEC – an excellence centre for consultancy and continuing education in the lighting field in direct link with the needs of the labour market”. This project, developed between December 15, 1998 – March 14, 2000, concentrated the efforts of university professors from Cluj-Napoca, Barcelona, Helsinki and Naples.
The main objective of LEC was and is to create a regional pole of interest in lighting in the North-Western region of Romania, linked with the needs of the labour market and the improvement of the educational curricula. Here continuous formation in the lighting field is being provided by: - monthly seminaries and workshops; - bi-annual short postgraduate courses dealing with the Management of Electric Installations and Lighting; - research studies on modern, energy efficient lighting systems; - bi-annual International Conference on Illumination ILUMINAT (starting with 2001, the 5th edition was held in February 2009); - editing Ingineria Iluminatului (Lighting Engineering) journal – the Romanian scientific journal in lighting field, half-yearly edition (starting with 1999, the last issue nr. 22, winter 2008); - summer courses for EU students (July 2001 – “Light & Lighting - Ambience, Management and Systems”, together with BEST - Board of European Students of Technology - office of the Technical University with the participation of 21 students from Europe. The course presentation and the written support were performed in English). The Lighting Engineering Centre concludes the work developed at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca in the area of lighting education and research.
Energy and Costs Management for Lighting Installations - MECOSIL 2000 - research and development project under the frame of the international cooperation Romania-Spain, Ministry of Research and Technology, Contract 1208/96, added 610/99, theme A4, 1998-2000 *1994-1995, ENTPE-LASH, Vaulx-en-Velin (Lyon), France (Partner)
Characterization of glazing materials for daylighting applications, program PECO JOULE - contract JOU2-CT93-0404, coordinator Dr. Marc Fontoynont, ENTPE-LASH, Vaulx-en-Velin (Lyon), France, 1994 - 1995
Department of Electric Energy Utilities / Building Installations. Teaching activity in the field of Electric Installations and Lighting.
Department of Building Installations. Teaching activity in the field of Electric Installations and Lighting
Research activity in the field of Electric Installations and Lighting
© Prof.dr. Florin Pop